The essence of Flipped Learning is simple. In Part 1 of this series we explained Flipped Learning as:
- Learning environments that have steered the focus of the classroom away from “the lecture”
- Learning environments that have replaced “the lecture” with increased hours working with students one on one, assisting them with higher order learning challenges and personalising their learning (Active Learning): AND
- Learning environments that deliver critical content to students through technology (often video) outside and inside of class time.
Let’s focus on how to change our instructional style from one of “Lecture” to one of “Active Learning”, for that’s what flipped classrooms seek to do.
To do this we can learn from both Dr Robert Marzano and Bloom’s Taxonomy.
In Part 2 of this series, we saw how Marzano’s research demonstrates that only a small percentage of classrooms in the USA spent time on cognitively complex tasks involving generating and testing hypotheses (Active Learning). Flipped Learning seeks to improve this situation. Flipped Learning seeks to expose students to more Active Learning.
How do we do it? Where can we get some help with this?
Bloom’s Taxonomy one of the better-known education theories provide some useful insights.
In thinking about the importance of Active Learning in the Flipped Learning paradigm, Jon Bergmann one of the pioneers of Flipped Learning, suggests that we flip the Bloom’s Taxonomy diagram and then change its shape as follows:
Figure 1: Bloom’s Taxonomy – Original
In traditional teaching, a teacher spends more time at the bottom of Bloom’s Taxonomy than they do at the top (Figure 1). Often the higher order active skills of Bloom’s (creating, evaluating and analysing) are left for homework projects with the teacher in class time focussing on the more passive skills of (remembering, understanding). Is this the best use of the teacher’s time? No!
Figure 2: Bloom’s Taxonomy – Flipped
Flip Bloom’s Taxonomy (Figure 2) and we get closer to the essence of Flipped Learning.
Here the focus for the teacher in class time is more at the top (creating, evaluating, analysing). Less at the bottom (remembering and understanding). That can be catered for through technology. This is better teaching, but is it realistic? Not quite!
Figure 3: Bloom’s Taxonomy – Diamond
A diamond-shaped Bloom’s (Figure 3) is arguably an even better explanation of the best use of a teacher’s time. Here the teacher spends more time in the middle of Bloom’s (analysing, applying). This is where a student needs a teacher to help them the most. Technology can help with the other skills. Now we are getting close to the essence of a flipped classroom with Active Learning a very significant component at the centre.
To find out more about Flipped Learning and its possibilities meet Jon Bergmann, in person @ FlipCon Australia at the Inaburra School in Sydney on Friday 20 and Saturday 21 October 2017.
If you are interested in drilling right down to implementing Active Learning in your classroom you may wish to consider the Masterclass option available at the conference.
For more information about the Masterclass option and to register go to the FlipCon Australia page.